There are many questions about the initial cause of autism which is yet to be determined. Since there is no root cause, then
there is no cure for autism. There are, however, several intervention options available (pharmaceutical and biomedical,
therapeutic, and educational) that can be, to varying degrees, controversial. It is widely acknowledge by professionals that
some form of intensive educational interventions should be at basis of any treatment program, regardless of any choice to
use, therapies options are highly beneficial.

An early, intensive, appropriate treatment program will significantly improve the outlook for most young children with autism.
Most therapies will build on the interests of the child in an exceptionally structured schedule of helpful activities. Treatment is
most successful when focused toward the child's particular needs. An experienced specialist or team should design the
individualized program. A variety of effective therapies are available, including applied behavior analysis (ABA), speech-
language therapy, medications, occupational therapy, and physical therapy, and a behavioral consultation. Sensory integration
and vision therapy are also common, but there is little research supporting their effectiveness. The best treatment plan may
use a combination of techniques.

Once a diagnosis is concluded it will be important to begin to identify needed services and resources. Each child with ASD is
different and each family will have different needs. There is no single best treatment package for all children with ASD. One
aspect most professionals agree on is that early intervention is important; another is that most individuals with ASD respond
well to highly structured, specialized programs. Before you make decisions on your child's treatment, you will want to gather
information about the various options available. Learn as much as you can, look at all the options, and make your decision on
your child's treatment based on your child's needs. You may want to visit public schools in your area to see the programs
they offer special needs children.

Floor Time

Dr. Stanley Greenspan is the most well known supporter of this intervention strategy. Floor Time is an integrated model that
is centered on the child and involves sensory and motor planning play, and focuses on emotional development rather than
cognitive or behavioral development. There is not much research to support its sole use, though many programs include its
principles in combination with others, especially with younger children.

This therapeutic approach seeks to improve developmental skills through analysis and intervention in six areas of functioning.  

The first area has to do with a child's ability to manage his or her attention and behavior while being presented with a full
range of sensations.

The second area involves the child's ability to maintain quality and stability of engagement in relationships.

Third is a child's ability to enter into two-way, purposeful exchange. At its most basic level, this program involves helping the
child open and close circles of communication.

The fourth area involves stringing together many circles of communication into larger patterns, while the fifth level deals with
the child's ability to create mental representations or emotional symbols through engagement in pretend play and emotional

Finally, the last level works on the ability to build bridges or make connections between different internal representations or
emotional ideas (e. g., "I am mad because you are mean.”) This capacity is a foundation of higher-level thinking, problem
solving and such abilities as separating reality from fantasy, modifying impulses and mood, and learning how to concentrate
and plan, which are extremely important skills needed for independence.

Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS)

PECS- Picture Exchange Communication System is used mostly with children who have limited or no speech. PECS is a
communication training system developed for autistic students ages 2 through 21 years, although it can be used if needed
throughout the remainder of the lifespan. Its basis is applied behavior analysis and discrete trial teaching. This is an approach
that is usually used in combination with others.

Individuals using PECS are required to give a picture of a preferred item to a communicative partner in exchange for the item.
The initial communicative behavior aim is focused on requesting. In the request, preferred items are presented as
achievements for the response. This training is designed to take place in a social context. Teaching students to request is a
useful skill, and often facilitates the teaching of other communicative intents.

Two therapists are initially required so that one sits behind the child and physically prompts him/her to give a picture in
exchange for the item. Physical prompts are quickly faded in order to ensure independent communication. Once the request
with pictures is firmly established, the child is then encouraged to verbalize the request based upon the premise that when
children learn that they can get their needs met by communicating them to the people around them (“I want juice” = getting
juice) they will learn to communicate more quickly and effectively.

Pictures are used in addition to spoken language so the children can exchange pictures to indicate their needs and wants. This
method has shown some success because of the use of visuals and because the communication is immediately reinforced
(rewarded) with the requested item.

Social Stories

All individuals with autistic spectrum disorders have deficits in social cognition, or the ability to think in ways necessary for
appropriate social interaction. This deficit can be addressed by a technique developed by educator Carol Gray, which helps
individuals with autism "read" and understand social situations.

Referred to as "Social Stories," this technique presents appropriate social behaviors in the form of a story. These stories can
be read by a teacher or parent, or even by the individual with ASD. Typically, the author introduces the story by reading it
twice with the person. If able, the person with ASD then reads it once a day independently. For a person who cannot read,
the author may record the story on an audiotape with cues for the person to turn the page as he/she 'reads' along. Once the
individual successfully accomplishes the skills or appropriately responds in the social situation description, use of the story
can be decreased. This can be done by reducing the number of times the story is read each week or by only reviewing the
story once a month or as necessary.

Behavioral Therapy

Behavioral training teaches people of all ages with autism how to communicate appropriately. This type of training can reduce
behavior problems and improve adaptation skills. Both behavioral training and behavioral management use positive
reinforcement to improve behavior. They also use social skills training to improve communication. The specific program
should be chosen according to the child's needs.

High-functioning autistic children may be enrolled in mainstream classrooms and child care facilities watching the behavior of
other typically developing children can provide examples for autistic children to follow. However, some children are over
stimulated in a regular classroom and work best in smaller, more structured environments.

Consistent use of these behavioral interventions produces the best results. The child's functional abilities, behavior, and daily
environment should be thoroughly assessed before behavioral training and management begins. Parents, family members,
teachers, and caregivers of the autistic child should all be trained in these techniques. Some treatment approaches of
behavioral therapy include: Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) and TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and Related
Communication Handicapped Children).

Music Therapy

Many individuals with autism have been treated with music therapy with varying degrees of success. This therapy uses music
as a facilitating agent to teach a variety of skills including academic/cognitive skills, communication skills, and social skills.
Specially trained music therapists include activities such as singing, moving to music and playing instruments in their sessions.

The idea behind music therapy is that music has been shown to affect a different part of the brain than verbal communication
does. So, if awareness can get into the brain through a different pathway that may be functioning more effectively than the
impaired communication influence, then the student can learn skills through this different channel.

Additionally, music is by nature is very structured; thus, it often provides the best environment for learning. The sound
stimulus can also aid in sensory integration as well as aid in socialization. Finally, a music therapy program can be easily
applied in a private as well as a public school setting.

Auditory Integration Training (AIT)

This therapy is intended to correct or improve auditory processing problems that may occur if the auditory messages
received by the brain are distorted. It is also used for hypersensitivity to sound. Often regarded as a controversial therapy,
AIT involves listening to vocal music through headphones connected to a device that electronically transforms the sounds.
Training is provided for 30 minutes, typically twice a day for 10 consecutive days. Before receiving the AIT, the individual is
given an audiogram to determine the hearing ability for various sound frequencies. After this, the individual listens to music
through a special machine through the earphones.

Although no scientific research exists to support this intervention, some parents feel it has made significant changes for their
child. Others, however, have noted few if any differences after the therapy. Supposedly, AIT reduces hearing
hypersensitivity for some people as well as providing intense stimulation for the brain. More research to support use of this
method is needed. It is believed that such sensitivity and sound distortion can lead to learning and behavior problems.

The Son-Rise Program

Son-Rise is a treatment program for autism, autism spectrum disorders, PDD and other disabilities related to communication
and reciprocity. The program teaches a specific and extensive method of treatment and education designed to help families
and caregivers enable their children to dramatically improve in all areas of learning, development, communication and skill
acquisition. It offers educational techniques, strategies and principles for designing, implementing and maintaining a
stimulating, high-energy, one-on-one, home-based, child-centered program. The therapy is an educational treatment which
harmonizes and includes joining children instead of going against them. The program places parents as key teachers,
therapists and directors of their own programs and utilizes the home as the most nurturing environment in which to help their

The Son-Rise belief is that by joining in a child's repetitive and ritualistic behaviors supplies the key to unlocking the mystery
of these behaviors and facilitates eye contact, social development and the inclusion of others in play. Utilizing a child's own
motivation advances learning and builds the foundation for education and skill acquisition. Teaching through interactive play
results in effective and meaningful socialization and communication. Placing the parent as the child's most important and
lasting resource provides a consistent and compelling focus for training, education and inspiration. Creating a safe, distraction-
free work/play area facilitates the optimal environment for learning and growth is basically the approach.

Dolphin Assisted Therapy

Dolphin Assisted Therapy (D.A.T.) is a new modern medicine that some people categorize as part of the Animal therapy. This
field of medicine although relatively new, has shown results in patients who try it. Doctors at the dolphin therapy center claim
they have helped more than 1,000 children overcome learning disorders, and say that represents a 97 percent success rate.
Dolphins and children working together have built a hypothetical base, and programs designed for children suffering from a
range of disorders, including autism and A.D.D, ages 2-13 has made it a realization.

The student with special needs is taken to the pool and is encouraged to swim with the dolphin for thirty minutes. The
individual stays in close contact with the dolphin, cuddles and kisses the dolphin; the dolphin sings to the student and helps
him/her swim, carrying the individual who holds on to its fins. A carefree relationship between the student and the dolphin is
experienced. Swimming with dolphins for half an hour enhances the child’s awareness and curiosity to the outside world. As
a result, acceleration is observed in the learning process of children who are tutored by special instructors, who take speech
lessons and who are treated with physical therapy.

Some medical professionals admit that dolphins can have a therapeutic effect on people suffering from depression and
learning difficulties. But doctors are baffled as to how the process works. One theory is that dolphins use their unique
scanning system skill to identify neurological disorders in people, and then help them relax and open up to learning and
healing. But many scientists argue that the children just like the feel of the dolphins, and it is no more than a recreational
pastime. And they note that there is not a conclusive study on dolphin therapy to prove it really works.

Biomedical Treatments

Among the available options are biomedical treatments (interventions that involve activity of bodily process) that some
families feel have been helpful to their children with autism spectrum disorders. Some of these choices have some
documentation as to their effectiveness on specific symptoms. Certain medications, for example, have been proven to be
helpful in reducing difficult symptoms such as anxiety or obsessive/compulsive behaviors.

There’s others like dietary interventions, which have little proven evidence, but have been supported by families who say the
improvements in their children’s abilities or behavior are noticeable. There are also many other choices available; among them
are some that are dangerous, and have little support from anyone other than the individuals who profit from them. We advise
families to seek extensive information and talk to many other families who have tried a biomedical intervention before trying
this treatment. You should also research and verify basis of any unusual treatments before you invest.
Caution:  Many of these listed can be expensive, and are not generally covered by insurance, though you may wish
to check with your pediatrician for advice on filing insurance claims.

Secretin Hormone Therapy

This was a popular concocted treatment in recent years due to a news report that praised the effectiveness. Secretin is
actually a natural hormone that was used in diagnostic tests for intestinal ailments. . The safety and efficacy of secretin has
been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for single dose use in diagnosing gastrointestinal problems
such as impaired pancreatic function or gastric problems such as ulcers in adults.

At the present time, there is no agreed upon procedure to determine which children may potentially benefit from the use of
this drug. Physicians are advised that, like all drugs, there is the possibility of adverse events that may be associated with
individual allergies or susceptibilities. An initial small test dose is recommended as a precaution against allergic reactions and
appropriate measures for the treatment of acute hypersensitivity reactions should be administered.

Although more than 100 children have received secretin injections for the treatment of autism, only one study on its use in
three children has been published at this time. The study discuss possible mechanisms of action in the relation of "gut-brain"
theories of autism that propose a link between the gastrointestinal disorders observed in many children with autism and their
brain impairment. Since that time, many studies have been done with little evidence of its effectiveness.

Dietary Interventions/Megavitamins

Several researchers have presumed that diet, food allergies or intolerance, or yeast may contribute to or even cause autism,
although at the current time no research exists to prove or disprove this theory. Since researchers are still actively exploring
much of this area, reliable information concerning this possible intervention is sometimes difficult to find.

Some researchers have believe that sugar, wheat, milk and some additives may be the cause of autistic-like behaviors in
individuals. Others believe that a lack of essential fatty acids in the diet or an overgrowth of yeast (Candida) is the culprit.
Some dietary interventions such as antifungal medications, herbal treatments, gluten and casein-free diets (both sources of
protein), and elimination of processed foods and food additives have gained popularity. Additionally, limited research exists
regarding the use of mega doses of Vitamin B6 and Magnesium to treat autism. The goal of this therapy is to normalize body
metabolism and thus improve behavior.

Vitamin Therapy

There is a theory that vitamin deficiencies, probably due to related digestive and environmental factors, can cause behavioral
and learning problems. Vitamin B6 has been shown to normalize brain waves and urine chemistry as well as reduce the
effects of allergic reactions by strengthening the immune system.

DMG (Dimethylglycine, a non-toxic metabolite)

DMG is available in many health food stores. It is legally classified as a food. Parents have reported positive benefits in
behavior. For those who have noted a difference, most have noticed this within two weeks of its usage. There have been
legal battles over its use, so it is no longer sold as a vitamin, but rather as a food product.

Vitamin C

Vitamin C is suggested as a vitamin for persons with ASD due to its improvement in the depressive, manic, and paranoid
symptom complexes, together with an improvement in personality functioning. It has not been researched as a treatment for
ASD, but families report improvement in some children. Vitamin C is crucial to brain function, which may relate to noted
improvements in some persons with ASD.

The use of vitamins has been supported by unscientific reports to improve speech, eye contact, social behavior, and attention
span. However, these interventions must be monitored in order to maintain a healthy level of vitamins in the body. Certain
specific vitamin regimens are felt to be effective by some families.

Nutritional therapy – Each person functions best with different levels of nutrients in the body. If these are not available in
sufficient quantity it can affect performance of metabolism. There may also be toxins present in the system that can have an
affect on levels of nutrients. Nutritional therapy is designed to provide the individual body’s optimum level of needed nutrients
through the use of supplements.

Food allergies/sensitivities – Some specialists in environmental medicine believe that brain function may be affected by a
reaction to a certain food or family of foods, or other environmental substances. Sensitivity to these substances can result in
behavioral, motor, learning or personality dysfunction. Typical allergy tests may not identify these substance sensitivities.
Specialists in environmental medicine use a variety of tests that are different from typical allergy testing.

Yeast/fungal overgrowth – The thinking behind this theory is that overgrowth of candida yeast may occur when the
intestinal environment is altered by a weakened immune system. This imbalance can, in turn, create dysfunctions in other
areas of the body, including the brain.

Leaky gut’ – Related to the yeast/fungal theory, this term describes the belief that toxins produced in the digestive process
pass through barriers in the intestine and enter the bloodstream due to a compromised immune system. These toxins then
affect the rest of the bodily functions that depend on the blood supply, including the brain.

Symptoms of food allergy, yeast infection, and/or leaky gut are associated and often they are treated together. Treatment
usually consists of a diet that eliminates foods that promote yeast growth along with supplements of ‘good’ bacteria and/or
anti-fungal agents.

MMR connection

There is a great deal of controversy currently over the possible connection of childhood vaccines and the onset of autism.
While there is no provable evidence of a connection at this time, drug manufacturers have removed the mercury content in
some vaccines. Some researchers have suggested that parents ask about the mercury content of a vaccine before
immunizing, to be sure your child is receiving the newer vaccines. They also say that it might be advisable (at least until
further information is available) to immunize individually rather than with multiple vaccines at one time, and/or that
immunization be delayed until the child is older than the current two-year-old standard. It is, however, still required that
children be immunized before they can be registered for public school, and it is not generally recommended that children not
be immunized at all.

Metal detoxification

There are some who support the research that metals which are known to be toxic (lead, mercury, etc.) are present in higher
quantities in individuals with autism and other developmental disabilities, and that this may be related to their ability to
function. It is not clear whether the reported levels are accurate, or whether it might be a cause of autism or simply an after
effect of some other source. It is also not clear what therapies might be helpful, should it prove to be related. Chelation or
removing metals from the blood is a risky endeavor, and there is currently no firm evidence that this is effective.

Educational Program

Since children on the autism spectrum are so different from one another, and since there may be more than one cause for
autism, there is a great deal of controversy over what is the ‘best’ educational program. While professionals and researchers
may differ in their support of specific methods, there are certain principles that all agree on. Intervention at the very earliest
opportunity, intensity, and consistency are all supported by professionals regardless of their specific views. This should be
kept in mind when planning for the education of all children with autism spectrum disorders. It is also important to recognize
that each method has some value, and that different children may need different approaches.
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